Homepage

1.

£îâàí À¼äóêîâèž, Ðóñèçìè ó ñðïñêîõðâàòñêèì ðå÷íèöèìà. Ïðèíöèïè àäàïòàöè¼å. Ðå÷íèê, Ôîòî ôóòóðà, Áåîãðàä, 1997, 331.

Jovan Ajdukovic, Russisms in Serbo-Croatian Dictionaries. Principles of Adaptation. Dictionary, Foto futura, Beograd, 1997, 331

Abstract

Reviewing the domestic and foreign refereces We have observed that the issue of modification of Russian models into replicas (Russisms) has not been sufficiently elaborated. As basis for research We have used the works of the theoreticians of the languages in contact whose principles of linguistic appropriation We have examined, reinterpreted and augmented.

The paper covers 1089 words and expressions which in the excerpted vocabularies of foreign languages have beside them a lexicograpfic remark (qualifier) rus. /Russism/. The numbers of Russisms in the domestic lexicograpfic sources is not final. Once the work on the Vocabulary of the Serbian Literary Language is completed the number will be far greater. In the paper the concept Russism covers all words of Russian origin which are either as foreign words or loanwords.

The main alteration in the methodology of studying languages in contact concerns the issue of linguistic levels on which the process of indirect linguistic appropriation is taking place, whereas one the most important contributions of this methodology is the possibility of investigating the correctness of already determined meanings and other properties in the dictionaries. The former researches have investigated the processes of indirect linguistic appropriation from the phonological, word formation, morphological, semantic and lexic-styllistic aspect. The changes in the methodology are caused, on one side, by the familiarity of these two languages, and on the other side by typological differences.

Within the word formation adaptation of Russisms We have introduced the concept of transderivation by which We wished to designate the general principle according to which the model is adapted by word formation into a replica. We have linked the concept of transmorphemization within the morphological adaptation with the adaptation of the basic morphological form, and the new concept of transmorphologization with the adaptation of morphological categories of the model into a replica. We have made the greatest changes in the theory of the language in contact in the sphere of semantic and lexically-stylistic adaptation of Russisms (LSA). Beside the concept of transsemantization by which We wish to designate the adaptation of model into a replica on a semantic level, We have introduced ten more semantic changes within a partial or compromise transsemantization, whereas on the lexically-styllistic level We are discussing three types of LSA.

A conclusion may be drawn from this that We have treated in the paper on one side the question of proper pronunciation and ortography of foreign lexicon within the orthographic and grammatical norms, and on the other side the question of their proprer use within the existing lexical norms. Through my research We have shown that a model is adapted most into a replica by (1) free transphonemization on a phonological level, (2) zero transderivation on a word formation level, then (3) zero transmorphemization when we discuss the formation of the basic morphological form of Russism, and (4) free transsemantization on a semantic level. Lexical-styllistic research (5) indicates that the modern Serbo-croatian languag, through Russian language, is returning to a great extent to the Church Slavic tradition regardless of the breaking of these links by the linguistic reform of Vuk Stefanovic Karadzic.

2.

£îâàí À¼äóêîâèž, Óâîä ó ëåêñè÷êó êîíòàêòîëîãè¼ó. Òåîðè¼à àäàïòàöè¼å ðóñèçàìà, Ôîòî ôóòóðà, Áåîãðàä, 2004, 364. ISBN 86-83691-06-3

Jovan Ajdukovic, An Introduction to Lexical Contact: The Theory of the Adaptation of Russisms [In South and West Slavic Languages], Foto futura, Beograd, 2004, 364. ISBN 86-83691-06-3

Abstract

As part of a pro­ject "Rus­sisms in So­uth Sla­vic and West Sla­vic lan­gu­a­ges ac­cor­ding to the qu­a­li­fi­ers in le­xi­co­grap­hi­cal so­ur­ces", we ha­ve de­ve­lo­ped a plan for a "Dic­ti­o­nary of Rus­sisms in So­uth and West Sla­vic Lan­gu­a­ges" and de­scri­bed its con­nec­tion to the the­ory of in­ter-Sla­vic lan­gu­a­ge con­tact. This is a spe­cial ca­se of the ge­ne­ral pro­blem of lan­gu­a­ge con­tacts, sin­ce the lan­gu­a­ges in con­tact are clo­sely re­la­ted.

 

We pro­po­se a spe­cial type of dic­ti­o­nary: the "Le­xi­cal Con­tacts Dic­ti­o­nary". We di­stin­gu­ish two subtypes: the "Le­xi­cal Con­tacts Dic­ti­o­nary of Iden­ti­fi­ca­tion", which iden­ti­fi­es words as Rus­sisms on the ba­sis of prin­ci­ples we esta­blish, and the "Le­xi­cal Con­tact Dic­ti­o­nary of Adap­ta­tion" which for­mally de­scri­bes the adap­ta­tion of Rus­sisms on each le­vel of lan­gu­a­ge - pho­ne­tic-pho­no­lo­gi­cal, de­ri­va­ti­o­nal, morp­fo­lo­gi­cal, se­man­tic, styli­stic, syntac­tic.

 

We in­tro­du­ce the term "con­tac­te­me" for the ba­sic unit of con­tact on each se­pa­ra­te le­vel of lan­gu­a­ge. On the pho­no­lo­gi­cal le­vel, we di­stin­gu­ish "con­tact pho­ne­me" (e.g. Serb. <a>, <g>, <i>, <t>, <k>, <a>), "con­tact-grap­he­me" (e.g. Serb. àãèò­êà), "con­tac­te­me in di­stri­bu­tion of so­unds" (e. g. Serb. Kremlj), "pro­so­dic con­tac­te­me" (e.g. Serb. gudsk). In word for­ma­tion we di­stin­gu­ish "de­ri­va­ti­o­nal con­tac­te­me" (e.g. Serb. -ščik: naturščik, -ja­ga: bro­dja­ga), on the morp­ho­lo­gi­cal le­vel "morp­ho­lo­gi­cal con­tac­te­me" (e.g. gen­der of no­uns), on the se­man­tic le­vel "se­man­tic con­tac­te­me" (e.g. Serb. koš2 - šator; me­sto sa ra­za­pe­tim šatorima kao boravište voj­ske, ta­bor kod zaporoških ko­za­ka), on the syntac­tic le­vel "syntac­tic con­tac­te­me" (e. g. Serb. bes­po­ko­ji­ti + Acc, obo­sno­va­ti + Acc), on the styli­stic le­vel "styli­stic con­tac­te­me" (e.g. Serb. bez­o­bra­zi­je, aparatčik, belogardejština) and on the le­xi­cal le­vel "con­tact le­xe­me" (e.g. Rus­sisms).

 

We re­in­ter­pret and in­no­va­te the "the­ory of tran­sfer" of "isms" (å.g. Filipović 1986, 1990; Ajduković 1997) and in­tro­du­ce the "the­ory of ap­pro­xi­ma­te copying and ac­ti­va­tion" of "isms".

 

In the "the­ory of tran­sfer", the con­cept of Rus­sism in le­xi­co­grap­hi­cal so­ur­ces in the bro­a­der sen­se me­ans (1) an un­mo­ti­va­ted or mo­ti­va­ted word of Rus­sian ori­gin which has kept a strong for­mal-se­man­tic con­nec­tion with the cor­re­spon­ding word in Rus­sian (e.g. Serb. baćuška, vot­ka, dača, sa­mi­zdat, sput­njik, urav­ni­lov­ka), (2) an un­mo­ti­va­ted or mo­ti­va­ted word of Rus­sian ori­gin which has par­ti­ally or com­ple­tely lost its for­mal-se­man­tic con­nec­tion with the ori­gi­nal Rus­sian word owing to adap­ta­tion (e.g. Serb. bla­go­vre­men, iskre­nost, isti­na, prav­da, lju­bi­mac, lju­bi­mi­ca, predostrožan, predostrožnost), (3) an un­mo­ti­va­ted or mo­ti­va­ted word of non-Rus­sian ori­gin bor­ro­wed thro­ugh Rus­sian (e.g. Serb. agit­prop, agit­pro­pov­ski, al­maz, ban­du­ra, aul, kil­ka, taj­ga, čaj, kor­sak, jan­tar, ku­mis, kaf­tan, aršin) and (4) an un­mo­ti­va­ted or mo­ti­va­ted of Rus­sian or non-Rus­sian ori­gin bor­ro­wed in­to the re­ce­i­ving lan­gu­a­ge thro­ugh a tran­smit­ter lan­gu­a­ge (e.g. Ma­ced. bo­ljar, kol­hoz, sov­hoz, kolhozovština). For exam­ple, the trans-mit­ter lan­gu­a­ge in Rus­sian-Ma­ce­do­nian lan­gu­a­ge con­tacts is Bul­ga­rian or Ser­bian.

 

In the "the­ory of ap­pro­xi­ma­te copying and ac­ti­va­tion", the con­cept of Rus­sism me­ans a word ha­ving one or mo­re "in­de­pen­dent con­tac­te­mes", which ha­ve ari­sen un­der the do­mi­nant in­flu­en­ce of Rus­sian (e.g. Serb. vostsk, nervčik, knjiška, bed­stvo, kr­jak).

 

Key words: Lan­gu­a­ges in Con­tact, Le­xi­cal Con­tacts, Le­xi­cal Con­tacts Dic­ti­o­nary, Adap­ta­tion Dic­ti­o­nary of Rus­sisms, Con­tac­te­me, Rus­sisms, So­uth Sla­vic and West Sla­vic lan­gu­a­ges.

 

Homepage