£îâàí À¼äóêîâè, Ðóñèçìè ó ñðïñêîõðâàòñêèì ðå÷íèöèìà. Ïðèíöèïè àäàïòàöè¼å. Ðå÷íèê, Ôîòî ôóòóðà, Áåîãðàä, 1997, 331.
Jovan Ajdukovic, Russisms in Serbo-Croatian Dictionaries. Principles of Adaptation. Dictionary, Foto futura, Beograd, 1997, 331
Reviewing the domestic and foreign refereces We have observed that the issue of modification of Russian models into replicas (Russisms) has not been sufficiently elaborated. As basis for research We have used the works of the theoreticians of the languages in contact whose principles of linguistic appropriation We have examined, reinterpreted and augmented.
The paper covers 1089 words and expressions which in the excerpted vocabularies of foreign languages have beside them a lexicograpfic remark (qualifier) rus. /Russism/. The numbers of Russisms in the domestic lexicograpfic sources is not final. Once the work on the Vocabulary of the Serbian Literary Language is completed the number will be far greater. In the paper the concept Russism covers all words of Russian origin which are either as foreign words or loanwords.
The main alteration in the methodology of studying languages in contact concerns the issue of linguistic levels on which the process of indirect linguistic appropriation is taking place, whereas one the most important contributions of this methodology is the possibility of investigating the correctness of already determined meanings and other properties in the dictionaries. The former researches have investigated the processes of indirect linguistic appropriation from the phonological, word formation, morphological, semantic and lexic-styllistic aspect. The changes in the methodology are caused, on one side, by the familiarity of these two languages, and on the other side by typological differences.
Within the word formation adaptation of Russisms We have introduced the concept of transderivation by which We wished to designate the general principle according to which the model is adapted by word formation into a replica. We have linked the concept of transmorphemization within the morphological adaptation with the adaptation of the basic morphological form, and the new concept of transmorphologization with the adaptation of morphological categories of the model into a replica. We have made the greatest changes in the theory of the language in contact in the sphere of semantic and lexically-stylistic adaptation of Russisms (LSA). Beside the concept of transsemantization by which We wish to designate the adaptation of model into a replica on a semantic level, We have introduced ten more semantic changes within a partial or compromise transsemantization, whereas on the lexically-styllistic level We are discussing three types of LSA.
A conclusion may be drawn from this that We have treated in the paper on one side the question of proper pronunciation and ortography of foreign lexicon within the orthographic and grammatical norms, and on the other side the question of their proprer use within the existing lexical norms. Through my research We have shown that a model is adapted most into a replica by (1) free transphonemization on a phonological level, (2) zero transderivation on a word formation level, then (3) zero transmorphemization when we discuss the formation of the basic morphological form of Russism, and (4) free transsemantization on a semantic level. Lexical-styllistic research (5) indicates that the modern Serbo-croatian languag, through Russian language, is returning to a great extent to the Church Slavic tradition regardless of the breaking of these links by the linguistic reform of Vuk Stefanovic Karadzic.
£îâàí À¼äóêîâè, Óâîä ó ëåêñè÷êó êîíòàêòîëîãè¼ó. Òåîðè¼à àäàïòàöè¼å ðóñèçàìà, Ôîòî ôóòóðà, Áåîãðàä, 2004, 364. ISBN 86-83691-06-3
Jovan Ajdukovic, An Introduction to Lexical Contact: The Theory of the Adaptation of Russisms [In South and West Slavic Languages], Foto futura, Beograd, 2004, 364. ISBN 86-83691-06-3
As part of a project "Russisms in South Slavic and West Slavic languages according to the qualifiers in lexicographical sources", we have developed a plan for a "Dictionary of Russisms in South and West Slavic Languages" and described its connection to the theory of inter-Slavic language contact. This is a special case of the general problem of language contacts, since the languages in contact are closely related.
We propose a special type of dictionary: the "Lexical Contacts Dictionary". We distinguish two subtypes: the "Lexical Contacts Dictionary of Identification", which identifies words as Russisms on the basis of principles we establish, and the "Lexical Contact Dictionary of Adaptation" which formally describes the adaptation of Russisms on each level of language - phonetic-phonological, derivational, morpfological, semantic, stylistic, syntactic.
We introduce the term "contacteme" for the basic unit of contact on each separate level of language. On the phonological level, we distinguish "contact phoneme" (e.g. Serb. <a>, <g>, <i>, <t>, <k>, <a>), "contact-grapheme" (e.g. Serb. àãèòêà), "contacteme in distribution of sounds" (e. g. Serb. Kremlj), "prosodic contacteme" (e.g. Serb. gudsk). In word formation we distinguish "derivational contacteme" (e.g. Serb. -ščik: naturščik, -jaga: brodjaga), on the morphological level "morphological contacteme" (e.g. gender of nouns), on the semantic level "semantic contacteme" (e.g. Serb. koš2 - šator; mesto sa razapetim šatorima kao boravište vojske, tabor kod zaporoških kozaka), on the syntactic level "syntactic contacteme" (e. g. Serb. bespokojiti + Acc, obosnovati + Acc), on the stylistic level "stylistic contacteme" (e.g. Serb. bezobrazije, aparatčik, belogardejština) and on the lexical level "contact lexeme" (e.g. Russisms).
We reinterpret and innovate the "theory of transfer" of "isms" (å.g. Filipović 1986, 1990; Ajduković 1997) and introduce the "theory of approximate copying and activation" of "isms".
In the "theory of transfer", the concept of Russism in lexicographical sources in the broader sense means (1) an unmotivated or motivated word of Russian origin which has kept a strong formal-semantic connection with the corresponding word in Russian (e.g. Serb. baćuška, votka, dača, samizdat, sputnjik, uravnilovka), (2) an unmotivated or motivated word of Russian origin which has partially or completely lost its formal-semantic connection with the original Russian word owing to adaptation (e.g. Serb. blagovremen, iskrenost, istina, pravda, ljubimac, ljubimica, predostrožan, predostrožnost), (3) an unmotivated or motivated word of non-Russian origin borrowed through Russian (e.g. Serb. agitprop, agitpropovski, almaz, bandura, aul, kilka, tajga, čaj, korsak, jantar, kumis, kaftan, aršin) and (4) an unmotivated or motivated of Russian or non-Russian origin borrowed into the receiving language through a transmitter language (e.g. Maced. boljar, kolhoz, sovhoz, kolhozovština). For example, the trans-mitter language in Russian-Macedonian language contacts is Bulgarian or Serbian.
In the "theory of approximate copying and activation", the concept of Russism means a word having one or more "independent contactemes", which have arisen under the dominant influence of Russian (e.g. Serb. vostsk, nervčik, knjiška, bedstvo, krjak).
Key words: Languages in Contact, Lexical Contacts, Lexical Contacts Dictionary, Adaptation Dictionary of Russisms, Contacteme, Russisms, South Slavic and West Slavic languages.